Highly Automated Vehicle Systems

Péter Dr. Gáspár

Zsolt Dr. Szalay

Szilárd Aradi

A tananyag a TÁMOP-4.1.2.A/1-11/1-2011-0042 azonosító számú „ Mechatronikai mérnök MSc tananyagfejlesztés ” projekt keretében készült. A tananyagfejlesztés az Európai Unió támogatásával és az Európai Szociális Alap társfinanszírozásával valósult meg.

Published by: BME MOGI

Editor by: BME MOGI

ISBN 978-963-313-173-2


Table of Contents
1. Control design aspects of highly automated vehicles
1.1. Motivation
1.1.1. Reducing accident number and accident severity
1.1.2. Saving energy and reducing harmful exhaust emission
1.1.3. The role of mechatronics
1.2. Design aspects
1.3. Automation levels
1.3.1. Warning
1.3.2. Support
1.3.3. Intervention Semi-automated intervention Highly automated intervention
1.3.4. Full Automation
2. Layers of integrated vehicle control
2.1. Levels of intelligent vehicle control
2.1.1. Electronic System Platform
2.1.2. Intelligent Actuators
2.1.3. Integrated Vehicle Control
2.1.4. Direct V2V, V2I Interactions
2.1.5. Control of Vehicle Groups and Fleets
2.2. Layers of vehicle control
2.2.1. Command layer
2.2.2. Motion Vector
2.2.3. Execution Layer
2.3. Integrated control
2.4. Distributed control structure
3. Environment Sensing (Perception) Layer
3.1. Radar
3.2. Ultrasonic
3.3. Video camera
3.3.1. Image sensor attributes
3.4. Image processing
3.5. Applications
3.6. Night Vision
3.7. Laser Scanner (LIDAR)
3.8. eHorizon
3.8.2. GLONASS
3.8.3. Galileo
3.8.4. BeoiDou (COMPASS)
3.8.5. Differential GPS
3.8.6. Assisted GPS
3.9. Data Fusion
4. Human-Machine Interface
4.1. Requirements
4.2. HMI classifications
4.2.1. Primary HMI components Input channels Output channels
4.2.2. Secondary HMI components Input channels Output channels
4.3. HMI technologies
4.3.1. Mechanical interfaces Pedal, lever Steering wheel Button, switch, stalk, slider Integrated controller knob Touchscreen
4.3.2. Acoustic interfaces Beepers Voice feedback Voice control
4.3.3. Visual interfaces Analogue gauge LCD display OLED display Head-Up Display (HUD) Indicator lights (Tell-tales)
4.3.4. Haptic interfaces
4.4. Driver State Assessment
5. Trajectory planning layer
5.1. Longitudinal motion
5.2. Lateral motion
5.3. Automation level
5.4. Auto-pilot
5.5. Motion vector generation
6. Trajectory execution layer
6.1. Longitudinal control
6.1.1. Design of speed profile
6.1.2. Optimization of the vehicle cruise control
6.1.3. Implementation of the velocity design
6.1.4. Extension of the method to a platoon
6.2. Lateral control
6.2.1. Design of trajectory
6.2.2. Road curve radius calculation
7. Intelligent actuators
7.1. Vehicular networks
7.2. Safety critical systems
7.3. Steering
7.4. Engine
7.5. Brakes
7.5.1. Electro-pneumatic Brake (EPB)
7.5.2. Elector-hydraulic Brake (EHB)
7.5.3. Electro-mechanic brake (EMB)
7.6. Transmission
7.6.1. Clutch
7.6.2. Automated Manual Transmission (AMT)
7.6.3. Dual Clutch Transmission (DTC/DSG)
7.6.4. Hydrodynamic Transmission (HT)
7.6.5. Continuously Variable Transmission (CVT)
8. Vehicle to Vehicle interactions (V2V)
8.1. Mobile Ad Hoc Network Theory
8.1.1. Routing
8.1.2. Security
8.1.3. Quality of Service (QoS)
8.1.4. Internetworking
8.1.5. Power Consumption
8.2. V2V standards
8.2.1. IEEE 802.11p (WAVE)
8.2.2. IEEE 1609
8.2.3. SAE J2735
8.3. V2V applications
8.3.1. Traffic Safety
8.3.2. Traffic Efficiency
8.3.3. Infotainment and payments
8.3.4. Other applications
9. Vehicle to Infrastructure interaction (V2I)
9.1. Architecture
9.2. Wireless Technologies
9.2.1. DSRC
9.2.2. Bluetooth
9.2.3. WiFi
9.2.4. Mobile networks
9.2.5. Short range radio
9.3. Applications
9.3.1. Safety
9.3.2. Efficiency
9.3.3. Payment and information
10. Vehicle to Environment interactions (V2E)
10.1. Conventional technologies
10.2. Camera-based systems
10.3. Radar, ultrasonic and laser detectors
10.4. Floating Car Data (FCD)
11. Different methods for platooning control
11.1. Control tasks
11.2. Platooning strategies
12. Vehicle control considering road conditions
13. Design of decentralized supervisory control
14. Fleet Management Systems
14.1. Motivation
14.2. General requirements in transportation
14.2.1. Cost reduction
14.2.2. Logistics management
14.2.3. Vehicle categories
14.3. System Functions
14.3.1. Data acquisition
14.3.2. Data processing
14.3.3. Data transmission
14.3.4. Identification tasks
14.3.5. Alerts
14.3.6. Positioning
14.3.7. Central system (Back office)
14.3.8. User system (Front office)
14.4. Architecture of Fleet Management Systems
14.4.1. On-board units (OBU) In-Vehicle Data Acquisition
14.4.2. Communication
14.4.3. Central system
14.4.4. User System Data displaying, querying, reporting Map display
15. References
List of Figures
1.1. Road fatalities in the EU since 2001 (Source: CARE)
1.2. Road fatalities by population since 2001 (Source: CARE)
1.3. European roadmap for moving to a low-carbon economy (Source: EU)
1.4. European Euro 6 emissions legislation (Source: DAF)
1.5. The effect of collision speed on fatality risk (Source: UNECE)
1.6. Situations when driver assistance is required. (Source: HAVEit)
1.7. Automation level approach by the HAVEit system. (Source: HAVEit)
1.8. Driver drowsiness warning: Time to take a coffee break! (Source: HAVEit)
1.9. LDW support guiding the driver back into the centre of the lane. (Source: Mercedes-Benz)
1.10. Counter-steering torque provided to support keeping the lane. (Source: TRW)
1.11. Warning for misuse of lane assist for autonomous driving. (Source: Audi)
1.12. Parking space measurement (Source: Bosch)
1.13. Principle of the operation of the parking aid systems (Source: Bosch)
1.14. ACC distance control function for commercial vehicles (Source: Knorr-Bremse)
1.15. Steps of collision mitigation with an ACC System (Source: Toyota)
1.16. Temporary Auto Pilot in action at 130 km/h speed (Source: Volkswagen)
1.17. Highly automated driving on motorways (Source: BMW)
1.18. Test vehicle with automated highway driving assist function (Source: Toyota)
1.19. Demonstrating automated roadwork assistance functionality. (Source: HAVEit)
1.20. Demonstration of a platoon control
1.21. Hierarchical structure applied in the PATH project
1.22. Google’s self-driving test car, a modified hybrid Toyota Prius (Source: http://www.motortrend.com)
2.1. Levels of intelligent vehicle control (Source: Prof. Palkovics)
2.2. Initial model of the HAVEit architecture simulation
2.3. Levels of intelligent vehicle control (Source: PEIT)
2.4. HAVEit System Architecture and Layer structure (Source: HAVEit)
2.5. Powertrain Control Structure of the execution layer (Source: PEIT)
2.6. Scheme of the integrated control
2.7. Reference control architecture for autonomous vehicles (NIST)
3.1. Sensor devices around the vehicle (Source: Prof. Dr. G. Spiegelberg)
3.2. Radar-based vehicle functions (Source SaberTek)
3.3. Principle of FM-CW radars (Source: Fujitsu-Ten)
3.4. Frequency allocation of 77 GHz band automotive radar
3.5. Bosch radar generations (Source: Bosch)
3.6. Measurement principle of ultrasonic sensor
3.7. The emitted and echo pulses (Source: Banner Engineering)
3.8. Bosch ultrasonic sensor (Source: Bosch)
3.9. Ultrasonic sensor system (Source: Cypress)
3.10. Structure of CCD (Source: Photonics Spectra)
3.11. Structure of CMOS sensor (Source: Photonics Spectra)
3.12. Principle of colour imaging with Bayer filter mosaic (Source: http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/File:Bayer_pattern_on_sensor_profile.svg)
3.13. Bosch Multi Purpose Camera (Source: http://www.bosch-automotivetechnology.com/)
3.14. Bosch Stereo Video Camera (Source: http://www.bosch-automotivetechnology.com/)
3.15. Passive thermal image sensor (source: http://www.nature.com, BMW))
3.16. Night vision system display (source: BMW)
3.17. Typical laser scanner fusion system installation with 3 sensors. (Source: HAVEit)
3.18. :The laser scanner sensor itself and its installation point front left below the beams. (Source: HAVEit)
3.19. Multi-layer technology enables pitch compensation and lane detection. (Source: HAVEit)
3.20. Velodyne HDL-64E laser scanner (Source: Velodyne)
3.21. General architecture of laser scanners (Source: Velodyne)
3.22. Laser scanner fusion with 360 degrees scanning. (Source: IBEO)
3.23. Image of a point cloud from a laser scanner (Source: Autonomous Car Technology)
3.24. Position calculation method based on 3 satellite data. (Source: http://www.e-education.psu.edu)
3.25. Long March rocket head for launching Compass G4 satellite (Source: http://www.beidou.gov.cn)
3.26. BeiDou 2nd Deployment Step(Source: http://gpsworld.com/the-system-vistas-from-the-summit/)
3.27. Comparison of BeiDou with GPS(Source: http://gpsworld.com/china-releases-public-service-performance-standard-for-beidou/)
3.28. Differential GPS operation (source: http://www.nuvation.com)
3.29. Environment sensor positions on the HAVEit demonstrator vehicle. (Source HAVEit)
3.30. Block diagram of a sensor data fusion system: inputs and outputs. (Source HAVEit)
4.1. Example for the congested and confusing HMI (Source: Knight Rider series)
4.2. The vision of project AIDE (Source: AIDE)
4.3. HMI design: AQuA, take over request. (Source: HAVEit)
4.4. BMW iDrive controller knob (Source: BMW)
4.5. Splitview technology of an S-Class vehicle (Source: Mercedez-Benz)
4.6. Indicator stalk with cruise control and light switches (Source: http://www.carthrottle.com/)
4.7. Integrated radio and HVAC control panel with integrated knobs (Source: TRW)
4.8. Resistive touchscreen (Source: http://www.tci.de)
4.9. Projected capacitive touchscreen (Source: http://www.embedded.de)
4.10. Old instrument cluster: electronic gauges, LCD, control lamps (Source: BMW)
4.11. Liquid crystal display operating principles (Source: http://www.pctechguide.com)
4.12. A flexible OLED display prototype (Source: http://www.oled-info.com)
4.13. The SPORT+ and COMFORT modes of the BMW 5 Series’ instrument cluster (Source: http://www.bmwblog.com)
4.14. The SPORT+ and COMFORT modes of the BMW 5 Series’ instrument cluster (Source: http://www.bmwblog.com)
4.15. Head-Up Display on the M-Technik BMW M6 sports car. (Source. BMW)
4.16. Next generation HUD demonstration (Source: GM)
4.17. Excerpt from the ECE Regulations (Source: UNECE)
4.18. Combination of driver state assessment (Source: HAVEit)
5.1. Speed and distance profile comparison of standard ACC versus Cooperative ACC systems (Source: Toyota)
5.2. Illustration of the parallel parking trajectory segmentation (Source: Ford)
5.3. Layout of common parking scenarios for automated parking systems (Source: TU Wien)
5.4. Traffic jam assistant system in action (Source: Audi)
5.5. The operation of today’s Lane Keeping Assist (LKA) system (Source: Volkswagen)
5.6. Automated Highway Driving Assist system operation (Source: Toyota)
5.7. Scenarios of single or combined longitudinal and lateral control (Source: Nissan)
5.8. The manoeuvre grid with priority rankings (Source: HAVEit)
5.9. The decision of the optimum trajectory (Source: HAVEit)
6.1. Division of road
6.2. Simplified vehicle model
6.3. Implementation of the controlled system
6.4. Architecture of the low-level controller
6.5. Architecture of the control system
6.6. Counterbalancing side forces in cornering maneuver
6.7. Relationship between supply and demand of side friction in a curve
6.8. Relationship between curve radius and safe cornering velocity
6.9. The arc of the vehicle path
6.10. Validation of the calculation method
7.1. Intelligent actuators influencing vehicle dynamics (Source: Prof. Palkovics)
7.2. The role of communication networks in motion control (Source: Prof. Spiegelberg)
7.3. CAN bus structure (Source: ISO 11898-2)
7.4. Categorization of failure during risk analysis (Source: EJJT5.1Tóth)
7.5. Characterization of functional dependability (Source: EJJT5.1 Tóth)
7.6. Redundant energy management architecture (Source: PEIT)
7.7. Electronic power assisted steering system (TRW)
7.8. Superimposed steering actuator with planetary gear and electro motor (ZF)
7.9. Steer-by-wire actuator installed in the PEIT demonstrator (Source: PEIT)
7.10. Safety architecture of a steer-by-wire system (Source: HAVEit)
7.11. Direct Adaptive Steering (SbW) technology of Infiniti (Source: Nissan)
7.12. Retrofit throttle-by-wire (E-Gas) system for heavy duty commercial vehicles (Source: VDO)
7.13. Layout of an electronically controlled braking system (Source: Prof. von Glasner)
7.14. Layout of an Electro Pneumatic Braking System (Source: Prof. Palkovics)
7.15. Layout of an Electro Hydraulic Braking System (Source: Prof. von Glasner)
7.16. Layout of an Electro Mechanic Brake System (Source: Prof. von Glasner)
7.17. Clutch-by-wire system integrated into an AMT system (Source: Citroen)
7.18. Schematic diagram of an Automated Manual Transmission (Source: ZF)
7.19. Layout of a dual clutch transmission system (Source: howstuffworks.com)
7.20. Cross sectional diagram of a hydrodynamic torque converter with planetary gear (Source: Voith)
7.21. CVT operation at high-speed and low-speed (Source: Nissan)
8.1. V2V interactions (Source: http://www.kapsch.net)
8.2. Infrastructure-based and Ad hoc networks example (Source: http://www.tldp.org)
8.3. Vehicular Ad Hoc Network, VANET (source: http://car-to-car.org)
8.4. Multi-hop routing (Source: http://sar.informatik.hu-berlin.de)
8.5. Multicast communication (Source: http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/File:Multicast.svg)
8.6. Bogus information attack
8.7. V2V standards and communication stacks (Source: Jiang, D. and Delgrossi, L.)
8.8. DSRC spectrum band and channels in the U.S.
8.9. DSRC spectrum allocation worldwide
8.10. V2V application examples (forrás:http://gsi.nist.gov/global/docs/sit/2010/its/GConoverFriday.pdf)
8.11. Hazardous location warning (source: http://car-to-car.org)
8.12. Privileging fire truck (source: http://car-to-car.org)
8.13. Reporting accidents (source: http://car-to-car.org)
8.14. Intelligent intersection (source: http://car-to-car.org)
8.15. V2V based Cooperative-adaptive Cruise Control test vehicle. (Source: Toyota)
9.1. Architecture example of V2I systems. (Source: ITS Joint Program Office, USDOT)
9.2. Collisions avoided using Adaptive Frequency Hopping
9.3. Example safety applications with the integration of DSRC and roadside sensors (Source: http://www.toyota-global.com)
9.4. Dynamic traffic control supported by DSRC (Source: http://www.car-to-car.org/)
10.1. Combined pedestrian detection (Source: http://www.roadtraffic-technology.com, AGD Systems)
10.2. Loop detector after installation (Source: http://www.fhwa.dot.gov/publications/publicroads/12janfeb/05.cfm)
10.3. Highway toll control cameras (Source: www.nol.hu)
10.4. Portable speed warning sign at city entrance. (Source: http://www.telenit.hu)
10.5. Radar-based measurement solution (Source: http://www.roadtraffic-technology.com, AGD Systems)
11.1. Illustration of a platoon in the CarSim software
11.2. Structure of a platoon system
11.3. Illustration of a platoon
11.4. Mini-platoon information structure
12.1. The effects of the forward velocity to the suspension system
12.2. The effects of the road roughness to the suspension system when the velocity is
13.1. The supervisory decentralized architecture of integrated control
14.1. System structure
14.2. General architecture of the on-board unit
14.3. Architecture of the central system
14.4. Diagram example
14.5. Example alarm log
14.6. Vehicle parameters’ statistics example
14.7. Journey log example
14.8. Vector map example
14.9. Google Maps based FMS example
List of Tables
3.1. Continental ARS300 radar (Source HAVEit)
3.2. Comparison of FIR and NIR systems (Source: Jan-Erik Källhammer)
12.1. Values of parameters describing road spectrum
14.1. Communication system